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Allium virgunculae var. yakushimenseFamily: Amaryllidaceae
Japanese: ヤクシマイトラッキョウ (Yakushima ito rakkyou)
This one had me 100% fooled: I have no idea what the difference is between this species and A. macrostemon. . . except maybe a little smaller, and the fact that it grows around mountain tops! (Maybe I'm not the only one: Apparently this wasn't recognized as a distinct variety until 1998! But then again, I don't know the difference between chives and leeks!) I spent a long time wondering what this plant was doing atop Hasa Dake until one day when we were eating pickled onions and a guide from whom I learned quite a bit mentioned this species that I had not yet heard of.
Hotta, M. Taxonomical notes on plants in southern Japan IV. The Allium thunbergii group (Liliaceae) istributed in southern Kyushu and Ryukyu Islands Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 49(1): 66. 1998
Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 17 Jun 2014
米倉浩司・梶田忠 (2003-) 「BG Plants 和名－学名インデックス」（YList），http://bean.bio.chiba-u.jp/bgplants/ylist_main.html（2014年6月18日）.